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Leã©L-ŐSsy, Szabolcs
Caves in the buda mountains
World Geomorphological Landscapes: Landscapes and Landforms of Hungary

On the territory of Budapest, there are about 170 caves: mainly in the Rózsadomb (Rose Hill) area. The total known length of these caves (in the city) is more than 52 km. The caves of Budapest are hypogene (thermal karstic) caves, dissolved by mixing corrosion of ascending waters along tectonic joints. Therefore, the cave passages are totally independent of surface morphology, and there are no fluviatile sediments in the caves. The origin of the caves can be reconstructed from the careful reconstruction of underground circulation routes. The caves are characterized by varied morphological features: spherical cavities along corridors of various size, the walls and floors, sometimes even the ceilings, of which are well decorated with mineral precipitations (calcite, aragonite and gypsum, a total of almost 20 minerals), the most common being botryoids, but dripstones are also common. The cave passages are mainly formed in the Eocene Szépvölgy Limestone Formation, but the upper part is often in Eocene-Oligocene Buda Marl. The deepest horizon is sometimes in the Triassic limestone (Mátyáshegy Formation). Based on U-series dating of their minerals, the Buda caves are very young (between 0.5 and 1 Ma).

Hypogene maze caves; Tectonic preformation; Spherical cavities; Botryoids; Mineral precipitations; Budapest
Leã©L-ŐSsy, Szabolcs, 2015, Caves in the buda mountains , 121 - 128 http://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-3-319-08997-3_15