UIS Commission on Karst Hydrogeology and Speleogenesis
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Karstbase Bibliography Database

Re-published article
Birmingham, Andrew N.; Mylroie, Joan R.; Mylroie, John E.; Lace, Michael J.
Bell hole origin: constraints on developmental mechanisms, crooked island, bahamas
Speleogenesis and Evolution of Karst Aquifers
Martin, J.B., and Siewers, F.D., eds., 2010, Proceedings of the 14-th Symposium on the geology of the Bahamas and other carbonate regions, p. 18-30.
2011
10
71
79

Bell holes are vertical, cylindrical voids, higher than they are wide, with circular cross sections and smooth walls found in the ceilings of dissolutional caves primarily from tropical and subtropical settings. They range in size from centimeter to meters in height and width. The origin of bell holes has been controversial, with two proposed categories: vadose mechanisms including bat activity, condensation corrosion, and vadose percolation; and phreatic mechanisms including degassing and density convection.
Crooked Island, Bahamas has a number of caves with bell holes of unusual morphology (up to 7 m high and 1.5 m in diameter), commonly in tight clusters, requiring significant bedrock removal in a small area. In many cases, numerous bell holes are open to the surface, which requires that up to a meter or more of surface denudation has occurred since the bell hole first formed.
Surface intersection has little impact on the phreatic mechanisms, which were time limited to cave genesis from 119 to 131 ka ago, but greatly reduces the time window for later vadose mechanisms, which need to have been completed before bell hole intersection by surface denudation.
The Crooked Island observations suggest that bell hole development occurred syngenetically with flank margin cave development under phreatic conditions. Because flank margin caves develop under slow flow conditions, vertical convection cell processes are not disrupted by turbulent lateral flow and bell holes formed as a vertical phreatic dissolution signature.

bell holes; flank-margin caves; density convection; Crooked Island, Bahama Islands
Birmingham, Andrew N.; Mylroie, Joan R.; Mylroie, John E.; Lace, Michael J., 2011, Bell hole origin: constraints on developmental mechanisms, crooked island, bahamas , Speleogenesis and Evolution of Karst Aquifers , 71 - 79