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Klimchouk, Alexander
White, William B.; Culver, David C.
Krubera (voronja) cave
Encyclopedia of Caves
Chennai
2012
443
450

At the dawn of the new millennium, in January 2001, Krubera (Voronja) Cave in the Arabika Massif, Western Caucasus, became the deepest known cave in the world, with a depth of 1710 m. Discovering the first cave on the planet deeper that 2000 m had been a long-standing dream of cavers around the world, and this was set in 2001 as an official goal of the Call of the Abyss project of the Ukrainian Speleological Association (Ukr.S.A.), one of the most ambitious and successful exploration project in the history of speleology. In October 2004 this goal was reached, when Krubera Cave was pushed to depth of −2080 m. In subsequent years, the Ukr.S.A. expeditions have explored the cave to a depth of −2,191 m in the main branch, and also explored the second branch in this cave, called Nekujbyshevskaja, to a depth of −1697 m. The Arabika Massif that hosts Krubera Cave has unique geological and paleogeographic preconditions for the development of a cave with exceptionally high vertical range.

Arabika Massif; Caucasus; deepest cave; deep flow systems; Messinian salinity crisis
978-0-12-383832-2
Klimchouk, Alexander, 2012, Krubera (voronja) cave , 443 - 450 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780123838322000633, PDF