UIS Commission on Karst Hydrogeology and Speleogenesis
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Karstbase Bibliography Database

White, William B.
White, William B.; Culver, David C.
Speleothems: general overview
Encyclopedia of Caves
Chennai
2012
777
786

Speleothems are secondary mineral deposits formed in caves by flowing, dripping, or seeping water. The most commonly occurring minerals are calcite, aragonite, and gypsum although many other minerals have been found in speleothems. The shapes of speleothems are determined by a competition between the dynamics of the water and the crystal growth habits of the constituent minerals. Stalactites, stalagmites, flowstone, and other speleothems deposited from dripping for flowing water take shapes dictated by the details of the flow behavior. Helictites, anthodites, and gypsum flowers formed from seeping water and various pool deposits take shapes dictated by the habit of crystal growth. Tan, orange, and brown colors common to calcite speleothems and also their luminescence under ultraviolet light is due to inclusion of humic and fulvic acid from overlying soils. Speleothems are also found in lava tubes.

calcite; aragonite; stalactite; stalagmite; flowstone; cave pearls; gypsum; helictite; shield
978-0-12-383832-2
White, William B., 2012, Speleothems: general overview , 777 - 786 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780123838322001134, PDF