UIS Commission on Karst Hydrogeology and Speleogenesis
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Glossary of Karst and Cave Terms

1. The assignment or imposition of a definite direction in space; the act of establishing the correct relationship in direction, usually with reference to the points of the compass. Also, the of being in such relationship. 2. In describing crystal form and symmetry, the placing of the crystal so that its crystallographic axes are in the conventional position. 3. The direction in which an aerial photograph is turned with respect to observer or map. A single photo is best oriented for study when turned so that the shadows are cast toward the observer. 4. Directional arrangement of nonspherical grains in a sand aggregate [16].