Glossary of Karst and Cave Terms
1. (Chilean and Peruvian.) A natural deposit of nitrates and other salts precipitated at the soil surface. 2. (Mexico and Southwestern United States.) Indurated calcium carbonate and other salts found in the soil at the surface in arid and semiarid regions, generally formed by evaporation of lime-bearing waters drawn to the surface by capillary action. 3. In some areas, refers to hardpan resulting from concentration of carbonate in the soil by downward leaching and reprecipitation . 4. A deposit of precipitated minerals, mainly calcite or gypsum or both, formed in the soil or near-surface layers in arid and semi-arid zones at the horizon where ascendant capillary water evaporates and salts held in solution are deposited. 5. A similar deposit, formed by precipitation of salts leached from near-surface material and reprecipitated at shallow depths from downward moving waters . Synonyms: (French.) croute; (German.) Kalkkruste, Ca-Horizont; (Greek.) apothema orikton alaton; (Italian.) caliche; (Spanish.) caliche; (Turkish.) kalici. See also hardpan; havara; kafkalla; kankar; kunkar; nari; calcrete.