Ambal ridge, covering 4 km2, is a salt pillowof Gachsaran Formationwith significant salt exposures in direct contact with the Karun River, Zagros Mountains. The highly cavernous salt dome is currently being flooded by the Gotvand Reservoir, second largest in Iran. Geomorphic evidence, including the sharp deflection of the Karun River and defeated streams indicate that Ambal is an active halokinetic structure, probably driven by erosional unloading. Around 30% of the salt dome is affected by large landslides up to ca. 50 × 106 m3 in volume. Slope oversteepening related to fluvial erosion and halokinetic rise seems to be the main controlling factor. A total of 693 sinkholes have been inventoried (170 sinkholes/km2), for which a scaling relationship has been produced. The depressions occur preferentially along a belt with a high degree of clustering. This spatial distribution is controlled by the proximity to the river, slope gradient and halite content in the bedrock. A large compound depression whose bottom lies below the normal maximum level of the reservoir will likely be flooded by water table rise forming a lake. The impoundment of the reservoir has induced peculiar collapse structures 220–280 m across, expressed by systems of arcuate fissures and scarps. Rapid subsurface salt dissolution is expected to generate and reactivate a large number of sinkholes and may reactivate landslideswith a significant vertical component due to lack of basal support.