Although the two conditions given in the article title already narrow down considerably the caves that fall within these categories, it quickly becomes clear that the geomorphology of such caves is not clear from the beginning. A closer look into the literature actually reveals that diverse speleogenetic agents may influence the genesis of such caves. Vertical vadose passages, as well as (epi)phreatic base level control, very commonly occur in large caves in high-relief areas. The key to understanding the speleogenesis is first the notion of time (commonly such caves are old and may even present different distinct phases of evolution) and second, the evolution of the surface around these caves. Often, caves in mountaineous areas deliver hints to reconstruct the (spatial and temporal) evolution of the surface morphology. In that fashion, caves in mountains and in lowlands are no different, but surface information within the mountains is usually much rarer because of the intensive erosional processes in such steeply sloping areas.