(German.) Channels or furrows, caused by solution on massive bare limestone surfaces; they vary in depth from a few millimeters to more than a meter and are separated by ridges. In modern usage, the terms are general, describing the total complex of superficial solution forms found on compact pure limestone. Classified into several kinds, the most common of which are: Rillenkarren - shallow channels separated by sharp ridges 2-3 centimeters apart; Rinnenkarren - flat-bottomed grooves several centimeters apart; Kluftkarren - joints enlarged by solution; Spitzkarren - large deep grooves extending down from steep spires or pinnacles; meandering karren (Maanderkarren) - small winding or meandering channels; round karren (Rundkarren) - karren having rounded channels and intervening rounded ridges, probably reexhumed after formation under soil or peat; Flachkarren - equivalent to the English clint; Bodenkarren - karren formed beneath the soil . Synonyms: (French.) lapies; (German.) Karren, Schratten; (Greek.) thaktyloglyphae, amaxotrochiae; (Italian.) campo solcato; (Russian.) karry; (Spanish.) lapiaz; (Turkish.) erime olugu; (Yugoslavian.) skrape, skripovi, grizine, lebici, skraplje.